Nasal drug delivery system: An introduction, mechanism with its advantages.

What is the nasal drug delivery system?

Nasal-dosage-form
Nasal dosage form

Nasal route of administration from which the drugs are insufflated through the nose. This can be a form of either topical administration or systemic administration. Whereas the drugs thus locally delivered in a nasal dosage form that can go on to have either purely local or systemic effects. Nasal sprays are locally acting drugs in the form of decongestants for the treatment of cold and allergy, whose systemic effects are usually minimal. Examples of systemically active drugs in the form of nasal sprays are such as migraine drugs, nicotine replacement, and hormone treatments.

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Liquid dosage form: An introduction, classification, excipients, with its advantage.

What is a liquid dosage form?

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Liquid dosage forms

The liquid dosage form is pourable pharmaceutical preparations, which contain a mixture of active drug components and non-drug components (excipients) that dissolved or suspended in a suitable solvent or mixtures of solvents. These are pharmaceutical formulations, those designed to provide a maximum therapeutic response in a target population when difficulty in swallowing solid dosage forms and produce a rapid therapeutic effect.

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Semi-solid dosage form: An introduction, classification, ingredients, with its advantage.

What is a semi-solid dosage form?

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The semi-solid dosage form is in the form of dermatological products of semisolid consistency which are applied on the skin for therapeutic or protective action. Semisolid dosage forms are intended for topical application in the form of ointments, creams, paste, and gels, etc.

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Solid dosage form: An introduction with its principle.

What is solid dosage form?

Solid-dosage-form
Solid dosage form

Solid dosage forms are the substance having a definite shape and volume, which manufactured for the administration of active ingredients that acts at the site of action with its composition. These solid dosage forms are mostly available in the unit dose form, which includes tablets, capsules, powder, granules, and other suppositories.

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Drug dosage form: An introduction, principle, classification, with its factor.

What is the drug dosage form?

Drug-Dosage-form
Dosage form

The drug dosage form is known as the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) that are combined with the excipients or additives and act at the site of action with their action in different forms.

In the form of dosage forms, the drug molecules are delivered at the site of action within the body to produce optimum desired effects and minimum adverse effects.

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The ultimate step to step guide for intravenous cannulation.

Intravenous cannulation

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Intravenous cannulation the most common procedure in healthcare as increasing numbers of patients are treated for acute and chronic illnesses. The intravenous cannula is not used without risk, so it is essential that the healthcare practitioner can justify why the patient requires cannulation. As well as being able to safety management and provide ongoing care for patients with the cannula device.

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Mass spectrometry: An introduction, principle, instrumentation, working with its application.

What is Mass spectrometry?

schematic-diagram-of-mass-spectrometry

Mass spectrometry is one of the primary spectroscopic methods for molecular analysis available to organic chemists.  It requires only a few nano-moles of the sample to obtain characteristic information related to the structure and molecular weight of analytical material.

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Electron Spin Resonance/ESR: An introduction, principle, instrumentation, with its application.

Electron Spin Resonance (ESR)

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Electron spin resonance spectroscopy/ESR is a magnetic resonance technique, which is based on the interaction of unpaired electron spins with an external magnetic field. In ESR, the essential aspects are may be illustrated by considering the hypothetical case of a single isolated electron.

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Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy/NMR: An introduction, principle with its instrumentation.

NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance)

What is NMR spectroscopy?

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NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectroscopy is the measurement and interpretation of the radiofrequency which induces the transitions in the nuclei by absorbing the radiofrequency waves and the spectra are known as the nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.

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Infrared spectroscopy: an introduction, principle, instrumentation, with its application.

What is Infrared spectroscopy?

Diagram-of-infrared-spectroscopy
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Infrared spectroscopy deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, that is light with a longer wavelength and lower frequency than visible light. It covers a range of techniques, which is mostly based on absorption spectroscopy. It can also be used to identify and study chemicals.  Its concept can generally be analyzed in three ways- by measuring reflection, emission, absorption.

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Spectroscopy: An introduction, principle, instrumentation with its application.

What is spectroscopy?

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Spectroscopy is the process of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. Electromagnetic radiation is a simple harmonic wave of electric and magnetic fields fluctuating orthogonal to each other.

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Antifungal agents: An introduction, classification, mechanism, uses, with its effects.

Antifungal drugs (agents)

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Fungus in the laboratory

Antifungal agents (drugs) are the drugs that selectively eliminate fungal pathogens through a host with the least toxicity to the host cells. These are the substances that inhibit the spread of fungi either by killing fungal cells or spores or preventing their growth. These are killed fungi or inhibits their growth. Those kill fungi are called fungicidal while those are only inhibiting their growth are called fungistatic.

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M. Pharma: An introduction, eligibility, duration, subjects, with its opportunity.

What is M. Pharma?

M.pharma
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M. Pharma or Master of pharmacy is a postgraduate academic degree in the field of pharmacy. M. Pharma deals with the aspects that are related to the pharmaceutical profession. It also concerned with the division of healthcare and chemical science which ensures the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs on their manufacturing and research.

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Pharmacy: An introduction, course, eligibility, subjects, with its opportunity.

What is Pharmacy?

Symbol-of-Pharmacy

The word pharmacy is derived from the Greek word “Pharmakon” which meaning- Drug, and it had first been used in the 15th-17th century. Pharmacy is the branch of healthcare science that deals with the preparation and dispensing of drugs. The aim of the pharmacy profession is to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs.

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Treatment of Tuberculosis: An introduction, symptoms, medication, with its effects.

Treatment of Tuberculosis

Bacteria-of-tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that generally affects the lungs, however, it can affect any organ in the body. TB can be developing by spread the bacteria droplets in the air. It can be fatal, but in many cases, it is preventable and treatable. TB is a potentially serious infectious disease that mainly affects your lungs directly. When a person may inhale Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) bacteria then after developing TB.

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